Job analysis Job analysis encompasses a number of different methods. By contrast, a worker-oriented job analysis involves an examination of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics KSAOs required to successfully perform the work. Information obtained from job analyses are used for many purposes, including the creation of job-relevant selection procedures, performance appraisals and the criteria they require, and the development of training programs. Personnel recruitment and selection[ edit ] Main article:
Source What is Industrial Organizational Psychology? The results of prior research contribute to resolving workplace issues, although occasionally, further research may be necessary.
The Gilbreths studied the physical movements of workers and how long tasks took to complete. With this information, they went on to design user-friendly mechanisms, which helped protect the health of the worker and increased efficiency and output Spector, For example, Abraham Maslow proposed a hierarchy of needs that include physiological needs, food, water, safety, esteem needs, love, and self-actualization.
Sadri and Bowen offer an example relevant to the workplace: Not all people are at the same level of the needs hierarchy; therefore, they are not motivated by the same types of incentives. Motivation requires that managers identify the needs that are operational for an employee at any one point in time and develop benefit packages that help satisfy those needs, each time building on the benefits that were provided before.
The role of the IO psychologist can change from one project to the next, according to whether the individual was retained by the organization to work on issues with employees by motivating workers or assessing job performance, or whether the role involves implementing change across the entire organization.
A company might retain the services of an IO psychologist to help with the interview process and to ensure the hiring procedures are legal. Some other tasks the IO psychologist may perform for an organization are: Jobs can also be redesigned so that tasks are completed more efficiently, and with less stress on the Introduction to the field of organizational.
An IO psychologist might also work with top level executives, coaching them on behavioral techniques and better ways to interact with others. Research Psychology Although some IO psychologists work to apply psychological theories to organizations, many others work in academic settings.
These IO psychologists teach classes, conduct research, and publish articles in industry journals Spector, IO psychologists who work in the field also conduct research, although their primary job is to apply the findings of research to improve the functioning of private organizations, government agencies, and perhaps to the university system where they are employed.
The IO psychologist may be self-employed, work for a consulting firm, or employed in-house for a large organization. The work settings and tasks vary greatly from one job to the next, and the research and strategies employed by IO psychologies can be useful in a seemingly limitless number of situations.
Ethics and Values Values and ethics determine the ways people think and behave. Values can be similar across groups, yet vastly different between group members.
Values evolve, and often change as people age, and they generally represent personal ideals, and not necessarily their actions. What one person may deem as morally correct according to their personal values, however, is not necessarily ethically correct.
You may have noticed that your own values have changed over the years. It is likely that your values now, are far different to values you had as a teenager.
Similarly, if you are a a grandparent, you will possibly have different values to those you had when your own family was young, although the difference is probably not as great as the change between those teen years to now.
The decisions people make on a day to day basis are guided by their values.
Values are a set of principles that guide the decision making process, and are influenced by beliefs. Among other things, values are often formed according to religion, gender, or culture, and by what an individual deems as morally right or wrong.
Collectively, these behaviors are referred to as ethics; a behavioral code of conduct expected from the society we live in or the organization we are a part of. Various professions also conduct business in accordance with a strict code of ethics, or code of conduct, and violations of that code results in penalty.
For a health care professional or an individual with legal credentials, this could mean a loss of license.
Real estate agents also work in accordance with a code of ethics. Values determine the roles people play in life; how they interact with others, and what career choices they make. A person who embraces cultural diversity may be best suited to a career helping others.
Others may be less tolerant if their personal beliefs and values are influenced by their religion. In many cases, the society, state and country a person belongs to often determines what is ethically and morally correct.
Research is either conducted in a laboratory or in the field. Research designs vary depending on the subject. Some research is purely observational, while other research can take the form of a questionnaire. Some studies continue over a long period and are known as longitudinal studies.HKPU/MM Organizational Behaviour & Development Semester 2, / “Introduction to the Field of Organizational Behaviour” presented by Dr A Lok OBD/S01/2 Introduction to the Field of Organizational Behaviour Presented by Dr Anthony C C Lok OB&D/MM/The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Literature .
Chapter ONE Introduction to the Field of Organizational Behaviour LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should be able to: • Define organizational . Organizational analysis: Organizational analysis, in management science, the study of the processes that characterize all kinds of organizations, including business firms, government agencies, labour unions, and voluntary associations such as sports clubs, charities, and .
A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.
Total Quality Management is a management approach that originated in the s and has steadily become more popular since the early s. Total Quality is a description of the culture, attitude and organization of a company that strives to provide customers . INTRODUCTION TO THE UN SySTEM: ORIENTATION FOR SERvING ON A UN FIELD MISSION PEACE OPERATIONS TRAINING INSTITUTE vI.
Lesson 3 The Role of the United Nations in Global.