Developing strong paragraphs My focus in this chapter is on the revision phase of the writing process. I emphasize the importance of carefully examining both the content and structure of the paper to ensure that you meet the standards for graduate academic writing. You can now take your draft paper and begin to carefully revise it. Once you find enough information about a particular point, you may start refining your paragraphs.
Conclusion There are perhaps few decisions made on behalf of students with visual impairments that are more crucial, yet subject to more confusion and controversy, than the decision regarding an appropriate reading medium. Making an initial determination of the appropriate critical writing and reviewing fractions medium is not a concern for those who have no visual impairment i.
Difficulties may arise, however, in making decisions for those students who are visually impaired but not totally blind.
The purpose of this article is to address these difficulties and propose guidelines for appropriate decision making. Few published procedures have been available to teachers and parents for assistance in making decisions concerning selection of a reading medium for students with visual impairments.
Perhaps the lack of attention in the literature addressing this difficult problem has led to a sense of confusion that has fueled the controversy between teaching print reading or teaching braille reading. While common guidelines for such decisions may be used by professionals throughout the country, these have not been thoroughly documented.
In the past, professionals believed that use of vision could impair sight even further Irwin, It was common practice to blindfold, and teach braille reading to all students who were visually impaired and, therefore, "save their sight" for other tasks.
The decision to teach braille reading was made without consideration of visual functioning. Today, best professional practice and federal legislation specify that educational decisions must be made by a multidisciplinary team according to the individual needs and abilities of each student.
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These decisions must be based on information obtained from systematic procedures. Such procedures must be used to determine the most appropriate reading medium for each child.
This article will focus on students who are entering a developmental reading program, i.
Students with adventitious visual impairments present separate concerns that, while important, will not be considered within the scope of this paper. An essential part of this critical period is the role that professionals and parents have in assuring that a solid foundation is provided for each student.
No one can predict the future with absolute certainty. However, professionals and parents are called upon to make informed decisions as a team in order to assure an appropriate education for each student with a visual impairment; one essential team decision will involve the primary reading medium.
Diagnostic teaching in the decision-making process Decisions on the appropriate reading medium cannot be made on the basis of arbitrary information, such as the legal definition of blindness, since students with visual impairments use their vision with differing degrees of efficiency.
The period of reading readiness presents an ideal time for implementation of a diagnostic teaching approach, since readiness activities seek to stimulate all the senses in preparation for formal reading. Support for the need for one reading medium or another can be derived from these data.
The key element is collecting information that will provide a basis for informed decision making, a process that is undeniably superior to decisions based on arbitrary or superficial information. Characteristics of diagnostic teaching Diagnostic teaching combines the two essential educational practices of instruction and assessment and may be characterized by the following principles: The use of diagnostic teaching practices is by no means new.
Although such an approach is typically associated with the diagnosis and remediation of learning problems, the case can be made that it has value for other applications in which a problem-solving approach is needed.
The diagnostic teaching approach provides an excellent means of putting together pieces of a puzzle when one piece is missing or unknown. The determination of the appropriate reading medium for young children with visual impairments who are beginning to read can be achieved through the use of these strategies.
The process of collecting information The process of diagnostic teaching uses incidental and structured observations, indirect and direct teaching, and ongoing assessment as a basis for guiding subsequent instruction.
At this point, educators should have acquired some preliminary indication of whether a student is primarily a visual learner or primarily a tactual learner, as well as information on the rate of learning with the preferred sensory modality.Play a game of Kahoot!
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The Spectrum Critical Thinking for Math, Grade 4 book is a good supplement to practice what a child is already learning or as a refresher before entering fifth grade. Lesson Plans - All Lessons ¿Que'Ttiempo Hace Allí?
(Authored by Rosalind Mathews.) Subject(s): Foreign Language (Grade 3 - Grade 5) Description: Students complete a chart by using Spanish to obtain weather information on cities around the world and report . Teachers will download fraction worksheets for students to practice fractions on a number line and with visual picture models.
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