Turing's "definitions" given in a footnote in his Ph.
Learn how and when to remove this template message In keeping with the church's teaching on universality and with the Nicene Creed, Orthodox authorities such as Saint Raphael of Brooklyn have insisted that the full name of the church has always included the term " Catholic ", as in "Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church".
From ancient times through the first millennium, Greek was the most prevalent shared language in the demographic regions where the Byzantine Empire flourished, and Greek, being the language in which the New Testament was written, was the primary liturgical language of the church.
For this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as "Greek" in contrast to the "Roman" or "Latin" church, which used a Latin translation of the Bibleeven before the great schism. After"Greek Orthodox" or "Greek Catholic" marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople, much as "Catholic" did for communion with Rome.
This identification with Greek, however, became increasingly confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken.
In addition, struggles between Rome and Constantinople to control parts of southeastern Europe resulted in the conversion of some churches to Rome, which then also used "Greek Catholic" to indicate their continued use of the Byzantine rites.
Today, many of those same churches remain, while a very large number of Orthodox are not of Greek national origin, and do not use Greek as the language of worship. While the Church continues officially to call itself "Catholic", for reasons of universality, the common title of "Eastern Orthodox Church" avoids casual confusion with the Catholic Church.
Orthodoxy[ edit ] Emperor Constantine presents a representation of the city of Constantinople as tribute to an enthroned Mary and baby Jesus in this church mosaic. Hagia Sophiac. The first known use of the phrase "the catholic church" he katholike ekklesia occurred in a letter written about AD from one Greek Churchs thesis after 70 years to another Saint Ignatius of Antioch to the Smyrnaeans The letter states: A number of other Christian churches also make a similar claim: In the Eastern Orthodox view, the Assyrians and Orientals left the Orthodox Church in the years following the Third Ecumenical Council of Ephesus and the Fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedonrespectively, in their refusal to accept those councils' Christological definitions.
Similarly, the churches in Rome and Constantinople separated in an event known as the East—West Schismtraditionally dated to the yearalthough it was more a gradual process than a sudden break. The Church of England separated from the Catholic Church, not directly from the Eastern Orthodox Church, for the first time in the s and, after a brief reunion inagain finally in Thus, though it was united to Orthodoxy when established through the work of Saint Augustine of Canterbury in the early 7th century, its separation from Orthodoxy came about indirectly through the See of Rome.
To all these churches, the claim to catholicity universality, oneness with the ancient church is important for multiple doctrinal reasons that have more bearing internally in each church than in their relation to the others, now separated in faith.
The meaning of holding to a faith that is true is the primary reason why anyone's statement of which church split off from which other has any significance at all; the issues go as deep as the schisms.
Together, these express the core of a fundamental teaching about the inseparability of belief and worship and their role in drawing the Church together with Christ. Several other churches in EuropeAsiaand Africa also came to use Orthodox in their titles, but are still distinct from the Eastern Orthodox Church as described in this article.
The term "Eastern Church" the geographic east in the East—West Schism has been used to distinguish it from western Christendom the geographic West, which at first came to designate the Catholic communion, later also the various Protestant and Anglican branches.
Orthodox Christians throughout the world use various ethnic or national jurisdictional titles, or more inclusively, the title "Eastern Orthodox", "Orthodox Catholic", or simply "Orthodox". That faith is expressed most fundamentally in Scripture and in worship,  and the latter most essentially through the Mystery of Baptism and in the Divine Liturgy.
Inter-communion is the litmus test by which all can see that two churches share the same faith; lack of inter-communion excommunication, literally "out of communion" is the sign of different faiths, even though some central theological points may be shared.
The sharing of beliefs can be highly significant, but it is not the full measure of the faith. The lines of even this test can blur, however, when differences that arise are not due to doctrine, but to recognition of jurisdiction. As the Eastern Orthodox Church has spread into the west and over the world, the church as a whole has yet to sort out all the inter-jurisdictional issues that have arisen in the expansion, leaving some areas of doubt about what is proper church governance.
Holy Tradition encompasses the understandings and means by which that unity of faith is transmitted across boundaries of time, geography, and culture. It is a continuity that exists only inasmuch as it lives within Christians themselves.
The Holy Spirit maintains the unity and consistency of the Holy Tradition to preserve the integrity of the faith within the Church, as given in the Scriptural promises. Similarly, reconciliation and unity are not superficial, but are prayed and lived out.
The doctrine of Catholicity of the Churchas derived from the Nicene Creedis essential to Eastern Orthodox ecclesiology. Therefore, the Eastern Orthodox notion of catholicity is not centered around any singular see, unlike Catholicism, that has one earthly center.
Due to the influence of the Catholic Church in the west, where the English language itself developed, the words "catholic" and "catholicity" are sometimes used to refer to that church specifically. However, the more prominent dictionary sense given for general use is still the one shared by other languages, implying breadth and universality, reflecting comprehensive scope.
Just as Christ is indivisible, so are union with Him and faith in him, whereby the church is "universal", unseparated, and comprehensive, including all who share that faith. Orthodox bishop Kallistos Ware has called that "simple Christianity".
It is also the sense within the phrase " One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church ", found in the Nicene Creedand referred to in Orthodox worship, e.
With the mutual excommunications of the East—West Schism inthe churches in Rome and Constantinople each viewed the other as having departed from the true churchleaving a smaller but still-catholic church in place. Each retained the "Catholic" part of its title, the "Roman Catholic Church" or Catholic Church on the one hand, and the "Orthodox Catholic Church" on the other, each of which was defined in terms of inter-communion with either Rome or Constantinople.
While the Eastern Orthodox Church recognizes what it shares in common with other churches, including the Catholic Church, it sees catholicity in terms of complete union in communion and faith, with the church throughout all time, and the sharing remains incomplete when not shared fully.Church's Thesis (CT) was first published by Alonzo Church in CT is a proposition that identifies two notions: an intuitive notion of a effectively computable function defined in natural numbers with the notion of a recursive function.
With VitalSource, you can save up to 80% compared to print. Church’s Thesis (CT) was first published by Alonzo Church in CT is a proposition that identifies two notions: an intuitive notion of an effectively computable function defined in natural numbers with the notion of a recursive function.
Robert Janusz is the author of Church's Thesis After 70 Years ( avg rating, 0 ratings, 0 reviews, published ).