Esprit decorps 7 Division of work Work should be divided in a proper way with reference to the available time. In general worker on the same job and the managers on the same duty acquire ability and accuracy which increase their output. Authority and responsibility Authority is the power given to a person to get work from his subordinates. Responsibility is the kind and amount of work expected from a man by his superior.
TERRORISM Although the terrors of war and criminal violence have been known since the dawn of human existence, the concept of terrorism as a form of political violence originated in le terreur of the French Revolution.
Initially a word for the brutal excesses of a revolutionary government some forty thousand persons were guillotinedby the late nineteenth century "terrorism" referred almost exclusively to the antigovernment violence of groups such as the Russian Narodnaya Volya "Will of the People".
Since then, the designation of particular groups and actions as terrorist has varied with political assumptions and aims. To defenders of government, almost any violence by opponents may be defined as terrorism.
To opponents, virtually any governmental effort to restrain or repress opposition may be defined as terrorism.
Whether "oppositional" or "state" terrorism, the distinction itself is embedded in a snarl of issues raised by the intersection of ideological and analytical concerns. Defining terrorism After noting that more than one hundred definitions have been offered, Laqueur concludes that the only generally accepted characteristic of terrorism is that it involves violence or the threat of violence.
Nonetheless, most observers also include political motivation and some notion of an organization that accepts and fosters violence as a political tactic. Political motivation may vary from a scarcely articulate resentment of felt obstructions and sensed antagonists to a highly developed consciousness and analysis of political relationships.
Mob violence against despised racial or ethnic groups typically has no specific political rationale and goals, despite the tendency of politicians and media commentators to impute responsibility for such violence to agitators and conspirators.
At a somewhat higher level of political consciousness are planned attacks by individuals aroused by ideological messages warning them of some threat e. Whether individuals acting on their own initiative may be terrorists depends on how one defines political organization.
Wardlaw is one of the few analysts to allow for the possibility of a lone terrorist who uses or threatens violence to coerce a target group, beyond the immediate victims, into acceding to political demands.
Theodore Kaczinski the Unabomber might be seen as an example. However, the Unabomber acted in awareness that a great many people agreed or sympathized with his views on the environmental threats posed by corporate greed aided and abetted by irresponsible scientific research and governmental corruption.
Similarly, the fugitive Eric Robert Rudolph, wanted for abortion clinic bombings as well as for the Atlanta Olympics bombing, acted with at least the tacit and probably some material support of antiabortion and antigovernment extremists. That their views were drawn from or coincided with the ideologies of terrorist organizations ranging from Earth First and the May 19th Communist Organization M19CO to Aryan Nations and The Order indicates that they acted in an organizational context, from which they drew inspiration, orientation, and justification.
The notion of organizational context implies that terrorists may be more or less loosely organized, and that particular organizations may be indirectly as well as directly responsible for terrorist incidents. For instance, while the Saudi Arabian exile Osama bin Ladan cannot possibly be directly responsible for every attack by Islamic fundamentalists, his ideological and financial support for their cause encourages terrorism far beyond the operations of his own organization.
So far we have observed that terrorism is politically motivated violence for which organizations are directly or indirectly responsible. What remains to be settled is just how terrorism differs from other political violence.
To begin, no definition of terrorism has included rioting, civil war, revolution, or international war, though analysts have agreed that terrorist incidents may occur in conjunction with or as a part of such violence. The consensus is that terrorist violence is more organized and deliberate than rioting, lesser in organization and scale than war.
And though guerrillas are often pictured as terrorists by their government opponents e. Differentiating assassination and terrorism is more problematic. Ben-Yehuda argues strongly that terrorism must be distinguished from assassination, but has been unable to pin down the exact nature of the presumed differences.
He suggests that terrorism is indiscriminate killing aimed at a general target while assassination targets specific individuals, but is admittedly unable to maintain the distinction in his own case analyses pp.
As the number of victims rises, observers appear to be increasingly likely to describe the incident as terrorism rather than assassination. But the difficulty is that deliberate attacks on specific individuals because of their political importance may harm people who just happen to be in the line of fire or nearby when the bomb explodes.
Moreover, "innocents" may be victimized by assassins not only accidentally but sometimes deliberately—for example, to eliminate witnesses, distract pursuers, or intimidate bystanders.
Both aim at maximum political impact, but differ in the rationale for target selection: To summarize, terrorism is defined as politically motivated violence, for which organizations are directly or indirectly responsible, that is intended to weaken the will of the opposition by using random targeting to spread the fear of victimization.
Terrorism and law There is no established legal definition of terrorism. Internationally, efforts within and outside the United Nations have failed in the face of widely divergent perceptions of what constitutes terrorism and who are terrorists.
There were prolonged debates on whether it is necessary or possible to reach a definition Higgins. Moreover, it became clear that terrorism cannot be defined in terms of specified acts, targets, purposes, or actors.
For instance, the shooting of a high official by an individual may be motivated by personal jealousy or envy; a plane may be destroyed in a plot to collect insurance; a diplomat may be kidnapped to force payment of a ransom.
Beyond the apparent technical impossibility of defining terrorism as a distinct criminal offense, international rivalries make it politically impossible.
Probably the most intractable political issues have been whether a legal definition should or can include 1 violent actions by a state, and 2 violent resistance to internal or foreign oppression. On the question of state terrorism, governments have adamantly rejected any legal definition that might apply to their own acts of violence against external or internal enemies.
On the second issue, governments have sharply disagreed on whether the concept of terrorism might extend to violence on behalf of such causes as "national liberation" from colonial rule or imperial domination, "progressive" opposition to capitalism, resistance to "cultural genocide," or impeding "assaults on the environment.Post modernism is thus a critique of modern society which refuses to acknowledge the capitalist basis of the modern society.
It detaches society from its moorings and criticizes modernity rather than capitalism. in the Latin American countries both people and governments are actively opposing these policies and the US hegemony in world. The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies is an independent, (c)(3), not-for-profit public policy research institute.
The Institute identifies and aggressively shepherds discussion on key science, technology, and national security issues facing our society, providing in particular, an academic forum for the study of related policy issues.
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Compared to modern American ideas of democracy, Athenian democracy was distinctive in.