An analysis of school districts having been permitted to establish dress codes

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An analysis of school districts having been permitted to establish dress codes

Argued March 28, Decided June 26, Motivated by the discovery that athletes were leaders in the student drug culture and concern that drug use increases the risk of sports-related injury, petitioner school district District adopted the Student Athlete Drug Policy Policywhich authorizes random urinalysis drug testing of students who participate in its athletics programs.

Respondent Acton was denied participation in his school's football program when he and his parents also respondents refused to consent to the testing. They then filed this suit, seeking declaratory and injunctive relief on the grounds that the Policy violated the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments and the Oregon Constitution.

The Policy is constitutional under the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments. Railway Labor Executives' Assn.

Where there was no clear practice, either approving or disapproving the type of search at issue, at the time the constitutional provision was enacted, the "reasonableness" of a search is judged by balancing the intrusion on the individual's Fourth Amendment interests against the promotion of legitimate governmental interests.

Here, the subjects of the Policy are children who have been committed to the temporary custody of the State as schoolmaster; in that capacity, the State may exercise a degree of supervision and control greater than it could exercise over free adults.

The requirements that public school children submit to physical examinations and be vaccinated indicate that they have a lesser privacy expectation with regard to medical examinations and procedures than the general population.

Student athletes have even less of a legitimate privacy expectation, for an element of communal undress is inherent in athletic participation, and athletes are subject to preseason physical exams and rules regulating their conduct.

In addition, the tests look only for standard drugs, not medical conditions, and the results are released to a limited group. The importance of deterring drug use by all this Nation's schoolchildren cannot be doubted. Moreover, the Policy is directed more narrowly to drug use by athletes, where the risk of physical harm to the user and other players is high.

The District Court's conclusion that the District's concerns were immediate is not clearly erroneous, and it is self-evident that a drug problem largely caused by athletes, and of particular danger to athletes, is effectively addressed by ensuring that athletes do not use drugs.

The Fourth Amendment does not require that the "least intrusive" search be conducted, so respondents' argument that the drug testing could be based on suspicion of drug use, if true, would not be fatal; and that alternative entails its own substantial difficulties.

Volpert argued the cause for petitioner.

An analysis of school districts having been permitted to establish dress codes

With him on the briefs was Claudia Larkins. Seamon argued the cause for the United States as amicus curiae urging reversal.

Christ argued the cause for respondents. With him on the brief were John A. Wittmayer and Steven R. The Student Athlete Drug Policy adopted by School District 47J in the town of Vernonia, Oregon, authorizes random urinalysis drug testing of students who participate in the District's school athletics programs.

We granted certiorari to decide whether this violates the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution.

As elsewhere in small-town America, school sports play a prominent role in the town's life, and student athletes are admired in their schools and in the community.

Drugs had not been a major problem in Vernonia schools. In the mid-to-Iate 's, however, teachers and administrators observed a sharp increase in drug use. Students began to speak out about their attraction to the drug culture, and to boast that there was nothing the school could do about it. Along with more drugs came more disciplinary problems.

Scheidegger and Charles L. Horne; and for the Washington Legal Foundation et al. Popeo, and David A. Students became increasingly rude during class; outbursts of profane language became common.

Not only were student athletes included among the drug users but, as the District Court found, athletes were the leaders of the drug culture. This caused the District's administrators particular concern, since drug use increases the risk of sports-related injury.

Expert testimony at the trial confirmed the deleterious effects of drugs on motivation, memory, judgment, reaction, coordination, and performance. The high school football and wrestling coach witnessed a severe sternum injury suffered by a wrestler, and various omissions of safety procedures and misexecutions by football players, all attributable in his belief to the effects of drug use.

Initially, the District responded to the drug problem by offering special classes, speakers, and presentations designed to deter drug use. It even brought in a specially trained dog to detect drugs, but the drug problem persisted.

According to the District Court: Disciplinary actions had reached 'epidemic proportions.Obituaries for the last 7 days on Your Life Moments. November 17th from p.m at Sarnia Christian School, Exmouth Street (at Photos (2) Sauve, Patricia Jean (nee Ricketts) Sarnia Observer • Thursday, November 15, • Obituary.

The State of Washington and participating WSCA states are also looking for additional volume based pricing for consideration. The volume discount program offered will be evaluated using price breaks identified in the Price Sheets per category. School districts, and individual schools, have varying dress-code policies.

Many ban clothing with offensive language, and inform students to dress appropriately. The Diversity Project: Challenging Racial Inequality at Berkeley High School.

It is with this prospect in mind that a group of researchers, educators, parents and students, came together in Berkeley, California an attempt to find ways to address the ever-present issue of racial inequality . On and across lands to which title has been acquired for its use, the director may, at such charge or fee as the commission may establish, grant: (1) Rights-of-way or licenses for roads, for pipe, electric and other utility lines and for telephone, telegraph and television lines or any other rights-of-way or licenses not inconsistent with the.

The introductory chapter on her “Analysis of Motives” first appeared as a magazine article, and appears here at the request of the publishers, after having been .

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