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Origins[ edit ] The distinctive all-big-gun armament of the dreadnought was developed in the first years of the 20th century as navies sought to increase the range and power of the armament of their battleships.
This was in keeping with the prevailing theory of naval combat that battles would initially be fought at some distance, but the ships would then approach to close range for the final blows, when the shorter-range, faster-firing guns would prove most useful. Serious proposals for an all-big-gun armament were circulated in several countries by Work began on her construction in May There is still debate as to whether this feature was important.
Naval gunnery was too inaccurate to hit targets at a longer range. Newer models of torpedo had longer ranges. An evolutionary step was to reduce the quick-firing secondary battery and substitute additional heavy guns, typically 9.
Ships designed in this way have been described as 'all-big-gun mixed-calibre' or later 'semi-dreadnoughts'.
Semi-dreadnought ships had many heavy secondary guns in wing turrets near the centre of the ship, instead of the small guns mounted in barbettes of earlier pre-dreadnought ships. The design process for these ships often included discussion of an 'all-big-gun one-calibre' alternative.
Poundstone submitted a paper to President Roosevelt in December arguing the case for larger battleships. War-game studies begun in July "showed that a battleship armed with twelve inch or inch guns hexagonally arranged would be equal to three or more of the conventional type.
A design had been circulated in —03 for "a powerful 'all big-gun' armament of two calibres, viz. Restrictions on length and beam meant the midships 9. The constructor for this design, J.
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Narbeth, submitted an alternative drawing showing an armament of twelve inch guns, but the Admiralty was not prepared to accept this. Uniform heavy-gun armament offered many other advantages.
One advantage was logistical simplicity.
When the US was considering whether to have a mixed-calibre main armament for the South Carolina class, for example, William Sims and Homer Poundstone stressed the advantages of homogeneity in terms of ammunition supply and the transfer of crews from the disengaged guns to replace gunners wounded in action.
The designers of Dreadnought preferred an all-big-gun design because it would mean only one set of calculations about adjustments to the range of the guns. This viewpoint is controversial, as fire control in was not advanced enough to use the salvo-firing technique where this confusion might be important,  and confusion of shell-splashes does not seem to have been a concern of those working on all-big-gun designs.
Ina inch gun might have fired one round every four minutes; bytwo rounds per minute was usual.
The armour of their design was considered too thin, demanding a substantial redesign. The —04 design retained traditional triple-expansion steam engines, unlike Dreadnought. The new First Sea LordJohn "Jackie" Fisher had long been an advocate of new technology in the Royal Navy and had recently been convinced of the idea of an all-big-gun battleship.
It has been suggested Fisher's main focus was on the arguably even more revolutionary battlecruiser and not the battleship. After a full evaluation of reports of the action at Tsushima compiled by an official observer, Captain Pakenhamthe Committee settled on a main battery of ten inch guns, along with twenty-two 12 pounders as secondary armament.
Detailed plans for these were worked out in July—Novemberand approved by the Board of Construction on 23 November The hallmark of dreadnought battleships was an "all-big-gun" armament, but they also had heavy armour concentrated mainly in a thick belt at the waterline and in one or more armoured decks.
Secondary armament, fire control, command equipment, and protection against torpedoes also had to be crammed into the hull. The Washington Naval Treaty of imposed a limit of 35, tons on the displacement of capital ships.Thus at Venice the College, even in the absence of the Doge, is called "Most Serene Prince." The Palatine of Posen, father of the King of Poland, Duke of Lorraine.
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Both methods offered advantages and disadvantages, though in general greater muzzle velocity meant increased barrel wear. As guns fire, their barrels wear out, .
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Perhaps lunar miners could use something analogous to Bruce Damer's idea for asteroids of using CO in an enclosure warmed by the sunlight and iron and nickel extracted in attached 3D printer - with the PGMs as residue.